Takes the scene description and renders an image, either to the device or to a filename.

render_scene(scene, width = 400, height = 400, fov = 20,
  samples = 100, ambient_light = FALSE, lookfrom = c(0, 1, 10),
  lookat = c(0, 0, 0), camera_up = c(0, 1, 0), aperture = 0.1,
  clamp_value = Inf, filename = NULL, backgroundhigh = "#80b4ff",
  backgroundlow = "#ffffff", shutteropen = 0, shutterclose = 1,
  focal_distance = NULL, ortho_dimensions = c(1, 1),
  tonemap = "gamma", parallel = TRUE, environment_light = NULL,
  rotate_env = 0, progress = interactive(), verbose = FALSE,
  debug = NULL)

Arguments

scene

Tibble of object locations and properties.

width

Default `400`. Width of the render, in pixels.

height

Default `400`. Height of the render, in pixels.

fov

Default `20`. Field of view, in degrees. If this is zero, the camera will use an orthographic projection. The size of the plane used to create the orthographic projection is given in argument `ortho_dimensions`.

samples

Default `100`. Number of samples for each pixel.

ambient_light

Default `FALSE`, unless there are no emitting objects in the scene. If `TRUE`, the background will be a gradient varying from `backgroundhigh` directly up (+y) to `backgroundlow` directly down (-y).

lookfrom

Default `c(0,1,10)`. Location of the camera.

lookat

Default `c(0,0,0)`. Location where the camera is pointed.

camera_up

Default `c(0,1,0)`. Vector indicating the "up" position of the camera.

aperture

Default `0.1`. Aperture of the camera. Smaller numbers will increase depth of field, causing less blurring in areas not in focus.

clamp_value

Default `Inf`. If a bright light or a reflective material is in the scene, occasionally there will be bright spots that will not go away even with a large number of samples. These can be removed (at the cost of slightly darkening the image) by setting this to a small number greater than 1.

filename

Default `NULL`. If present, the renderer will write to the filename instead of the current device.

backgroundhigh

Default `#80b4ff`. The "high" color in the background gradient. Can be either a hexadecimal code, or a numeric rgb vector listing three intensities between `0` and `1`.

backgroundlow

Default `#ffffff`. The "low" color in the background gradient. Can be either a hexadecimal code, or a numeric rgb vector listing three intensities between `0` and `1`.

shutteropen

Default `0`. Time at which the shutter is open. Only affects moving objects.

shutterclose

Default `1`. Time at which the shutter is open. Only affects moving objects.

focal_distance

Default `NULL`, automatically set to the `lookfrom-lookat` distance unless otherwise specified.

ortho_dimensions

Default `c(1,1)`. Width and height of the orthographic camera. Will only be used if `fov = 0`.

tonemap

Default `gamma`. Choose the tone mapping function, Default `gamma` solely adjusts for gamma and clamps values greater than 1 to 1. `reinhold` scales values by their individual color channels `color/(1+color)` and then performs the gamma adjustment. `uncharted` uses the mapping developed for Uncharted 2 by John Hable. `hbd` uses an optimized formula by Jim Hejl and Richard Burgess-Dawson.

parallel

Default `FALSE`. If `TRUE`, it will use all available cores to render the image (or the number specified in `options("cores")` if that option is not `NULL`).

environment_light

Default `NULL`. An image to be used for the background for rays that escape the scene. Supports both HDR (`.hdr`) and low-dynamic range (`.png`, `.jpg`) images.

rotate_env

Default `0`. The number of degrees to rotate the environment map around the scene.

progress

Default `TRUE` if interactive session, `FALSE` otherwise.

verbose

Default `FALSE`. Prints information and timing information about scene construction and raytracing progress.

debug

Default `NULL`. If `bvh`, will return an image indicated the number of BVH lookups.

Value

Raytraced plot to current device, or an image saved to a file.

Examples

#Generate a large checkered sphere as the ground scene = generate_ground(depth=-0.5, material = diffuse(color="white", checkercolor="darkgreen"))
render_scene(scene,parallel=TRUE,samples=500)
#Add a sphere to the center scene = scene %>% add_object(sphere(x=0,y=0,z=0,radius=0.5,material = diffuse(color=c(1,0,1))))
render_scene(scene,fov=20,parallel=TRUE,samples=500)
#Add a marbled cube scene = scene %>% add_object(cube(x=1.1,y=0,z=0,material = diffuse(noise=3)))
render_scene(scene,fov=20,parallel=TRUE,samples=500)
#Add a metallic gold sphere scene = scene %>% add_object(sphere(x=-1.1,y=0,z=0,radius=0.5,material = metal(color="gold",fuzz=0.1)))
render_scene(scene,fov=20,parallel=TRUE,samples=500)
#Lower the number of samples to render more quickly (here, we also use only one core). render_scene(scene, samples=4)
#Add a floating R plot using the iris dataset as a png onto a floating 2D rectangle
tempfileplot = tempfile() png(filename=tempfileplot,height=400,width=800) plot(iris$Petal.Length,iris$Sepal.Width,col=iris$Species,pch=18,cex=4) dev.off()
#> pdf #> 2
image_array = aperm(png::readPNG(tempfileplot),c(2,1,3)) scene = scene %>% add_object(xy_rect(x=0,y=1.1,z=0,xwidth=2,angle = c(0,180,0), material = diffuse(image = image_array))) render_scene(scene,fov=20,parallel=TRUE,samples=500)
#Move the camera
render_scene(scene,lookfrom = c(7,1.5,10),lookat = c(0,0.5,0),fov=15,parallel=TRUE)
#Change the background gradient to a night time ambiance
render_scene(scene,lookfrom = c(7,1.5,10),lookat = c(0,0.5,0),fov=15, backgroundhigh = "#282375", backgroundlow = "#7e77ea", parallel=TRUE, samples=500)
#Increase the aperture to blur objects that are further from the focal plane.
render_scene(scene,lookfrom = c(7,1.5,10),lookat = c(0,0.5,0),fov=15, aperture = 0.5,parallel=TRUE,samples=500)
#Spin the camera around the scene, decreasing the number of samples to render faster. To make #an animation, specify the a filename in `render_scene` for each frame and use the `av` package #or ffmpeg to combine them all into a movie. t=1:30 xpos = 10 * sin(t*12*pi/180+pi/2) zpos = 10 * cos(t*12*pi/180+pi/2)
#Save old par() settings old.par = par(no.readonly = TRUE) on.exit(par(old.par)) par(mfrow=c(5,6)) for(i in 1:30) { render_scene(scene, samples=5, lookfrom = c(xpos[i],1.5,zpos[i]),lookat = c(0,0.5,0), parallel=TRUE) }